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The One who is sitting on the Throne

A Study of Revelation 4:1-11

1 After this I looked, and there in heaven a door stood open! And the first voice, which I had heard speaking to me like a trumpet, said, “Come up here, and I will show you what must take place after this.”
2 At once I was in the spirit,1 and there in heaven stood a throne, with one seated on the throne!
3 And the one seated there looks like jasper and carnelian, and around the throne is a rainbow that looks like an emerald.
4 Around the throne are twenty-four thrones, and seated on the thrones are twenty-four elders, dressed in white robes, with golden crowns on their heads.
5 Coming from the throne are flashes of lightning, and rumblings and peals of thunder, and in front of the throne burn seven flaming torches, which are the seven spirits of God;
6 and in front of the throne there is something like a sea of glass, like crystal. Around the throne, and on each side of the throne, are four living creatures, full of eyes in front and behind:
7 the first living creature like a lion, the second living creature like an ox, the third living creature with a face like a human face, and the fourth living creature like a flying eagle.
8 And the four living creatures, each of them with six wings, are full of eyes all around and inside. Day and night without ceasing they sing, “Holy, holy, holy, the Lord God the Almighty, who was and is and is to come.”
9 And whenever the living creatures give glory and honour and thanks to the one who is seated on the throne, who lives forever and ever,
10 the twenty-four elders fall before the one who is seated on the throne and worship the one who lives forever and ever; they cast their crowns before the throne, singing,
11 “You are worthy, our Lord and God, to receive glory and honour and power, for you created all things, and by your will they existed and were created.”

1. Introduction

“John’s vision in chapters 4 and 5 is at the heart of Revelation. It is in essence a visualization of the Lord’s Prayer: “Thy kingdom come, thy will be done, on earth as it is in heaven.””[1] In these chapters John combines both the cultic and political themes.[2]Although there are different interpretations available for the book of revelation and the scene of the throne room in heaven, a historic interpretation together with a futuristic understanding will be more accurate. In chapter 4, the glory of God the father is revealed, where as in the following chapter the glory of the Son will be revealed. In chapter 4 of revelation, John presents God, the Father as the sovereign God who continues to sit on throne in heaven. This picture of the sovereign God is a comfort and reassurance for the Christians who are suffering or being persecuted for the faith they have in the Lamb. Unlike other rulers here on earth, he continues to sit on the throne eternally for he lives for ever and ever (Rev.4:10). To this sovereign God is offered the praise and worship by the twenty four elders who represent the triumphant church.

The pastoral purpose of these chapters is to assure suffering Christians that God and Jesus are sovereign and that the events that the Christians are facing are part of a sovereign plan that will culminate in their redemption and the vindication of their faith through the punishment of their persecutors.[3] It is the assurance that God will ultimately bring justice for the faithful.

2. Setting of the Text

The Book of Revelation is the last book in the Bible. This is rightly so because it deals with what the author has seen, what is and what is to take place (Rev 1:19) and ends with a prayer for the second coming of the Lord (Rev 22:20). The commentaries on Revelation differ in outlining the text. Although less precise, I would like to make an outline which at least remains within the boundaries of John’s perspective. Certain passages do allow us to determine the major divisions of the book of Revelation.[4] “The key to the contents of the Book of Revelation is given in the divine outline of Revelation 1:19. John was told to “write the things which thou hast seen,” which includes the glorified vision of Christ in chapter one (past). After this “the things which are,” which concerns the church in chapters 2-3 (present). Then “the things which shall be hereafter,” which include chapters 4-22 (future).”[5]

By the above outlining, it becomes clear that chapter 4 is the beginning of a new unit in the book of revelation. “From here to the conclusion, Revelation takes a prophetic form. Some of the prophecies may have already been fulfilled, some are clearly in the future, and some are double: They have been fulfilled in one sense and will be fulfilled again later.”[6]In Chapter 3:21, says, “To the one who conquers I will give a place with me on my throne, just as I myself conquered and sat down with my Father on his throne.” He, then, shows this throne to John I Chapter 4. Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 could be taken together.

Chapters 4-5 may be viewed as the fulcrum of the Revelation. In relation to what has gone before they provide a fuller understanding of him who dominates the letters to the churches. In relation to the rest of the book they serve the double purpose of initiating the series of judgments which lead to the final advent and descent of the city of God to earth, and of supplying the form for the series of messianic judgments (the seven seals) which immediately follow. In this respect these chapters constitute the pivot of the structure which holds the book together, for the rest of the visions dovetail into this main structure. Yet the vision of chapters 4-5 is also a self-contained whole, serving a highly important function regarding the message of the book. It reveals the ground of assurance that God’s gracious purpose for the universe will come to pass, and so it is dominated by praise and adoration.[7]

While in chapter 4, it is the sovereignty of God the Father that prompts the elders to praise and worship him for he created all things, in chapter 5, it is the saving activity of the Lamb that prompts the elders and the living creatures to adore him. At the same time chapters 4-5 is a vision of the heavenly church just as chaper 2-3 are the pictures of earthly church. Moreover, chapters 4-5 are connected to chapters 2-3 by the throne imagery in 3:21.[8] “To the one who conquers I will give a place with me on my throne, just as I myself conquered and sat down with my Father on his throne.” Thus chapter 4-5 describes this throne room in heaven in which each faithful will get a place if one will be able to conquer the vices of this world.

3. Analysis of the Text

“The throne room scene is a kaleidoscope of Old Testament images, with no single one dominant. Perhaps the most pervasive image is that of Ezek. 1:4–28, the “throne in a whirlwind” vision, but important parallels are also found with the throne room of Isa. 6:1–4 and the throne scene of Dan. 7:9–10.” [9] For a better understanding of the concerned text (Rev 4: 1-11), it is important to do an exegetical enquiry along with a hermeneutical interpretation of the text. The text could be outlined as follows[10]

i. Upward call (4:1)

ii. God on his throne (4:2–3)

iii. Twenty-four elders around the throne (4:4)

iv. Celestial phenomena from the throne (4:5–6a)

v. Four living beings (4:6b–8a)

vi. Worship of the celestial beings (4:8b–11)

3.1. Upward Call

The chapter begins with the phrase, “After this I looked.” This is a clause that, with variations, introduces a new vision each time it occurs in Revelation (cf. 7:1, 9; 15:5; 18:1; 19:1). In this chapter, this phrase points to a transition in literary styles as well as a shift in John’s vision. In previous chapters, John addresses the churches. In chapter 4, no such audience is mentioned. The mentioning of door and the command “come up here” symbolize the change in scene. What John evidently saw in this vision was a door standing ajar (ἠνεῳγμένη) in the sky (cf. Ezek. 1:1). A voice, probably the glorified Christ’s (cf. 1:10; Exod. 19:20, 24-25), bid him enter through the door into heaven.[11] John was now able to see some of the mysteries of God and able to report them back to us. John did not open the door himself, for the verb ἠνεῳγμένη is in passive form meaning it is God who has opened the door. It is by God’s will not our own. John is employing the same image of the door that he employed while addressing the churches.[12] But there it was the believer who was supposed to open the door to Jesus (3:20). “Must” (δεῖ) indicate that the events God was about to reveal will indeed happen. The word indicates divine necessity.[13] This verse reminds us of the Rev 1:19, where God invites John to write down “what is, and what is to take place after this.” This phrase may be an allusion to Dan. 2:29,45.[14]

Therefore these are the events that must take place after the present day events. This could be interpreted in both the ways- as futurist and as historicist. As futurist, one could interpret that these are events which must take place at the end of the present era and at the final judgment. As historicist, one could rightly say that these are events which are already taking place in the life of the church here on earth, after the events which are mentioned in earlier chapters and already happened in the life of the church. But I am of the opinion that, these are events which already began and will come to a final fulfillment at the final judgment. The door which is already opened and remains opened would be an added allusion to this.

3.2. God on his throne

“John is described as being in the Spirit in 1:10; 17:3 and 21:10. This may be similar to what happened to Ezekiel in Ezek. 8:1-4; 11:1, to Jesus in Matt. 4:8; to Philip in Acts 8:39-40, and to Paul in II Cor. 12:1-2.”[15] According to some scholars, the word πνεύματι should be ‘spirit’ referring the human spirit or to translate the Greek text with the phrase “in a prophetic trance.” But these translations miss the point that John does allude to both Father and Son in chapters 4-5 and in an indirect manner he alludes here to the Spirit.[16] The word ‘throne’ occurs 45times in Revelation.[17] It implies the fact that the throne is a central symbol of this work. The tense of the Greek verb καθήμενος (present participle here and in v. 3) suggests continuous sitting. The Old Testament and the other Jewish books contain such throne scenes (cf. 1 Kings 22:19; 2 Chron. 18:18; Ps. 11:4; 47:8; Isa. 6:1; Ezek. 1:26; Dan. 7:9, Ass. Mos. 4: 2, Test. Levi 5: 1). “Ezekiel 1 shows interest in the form of the throne-chariot, its wheels, and the cherubim who support it (the source for much mystical speculation in the centuries following). John, however, has little to say about the Merkavah itself, and delays mentioning the creatures/cherubim until later.” [18]One could easily say that the person on the throne is God the Father (cf. v. 5; 5:5, 7; 6:16; 7:10; 19:4).

The throne was an image familiar in the minds of John’s community. It represents power, justice, and the established authority structure. In this and following chapters, John will offer an alternative authority structure in which God’s majesty and justice will prevail. This would have been immensely comforting to Christians who were being treated unjustly by their government. It might have served as a warning to Christians who was lenient on the authority structures.[19]The throne and the one who is continuously sitting on the throne should remind the reader about the sovereignty of God.

Like a faithful Jew, John does not name the one who is seated on the throne.[20] He could be like the Ancient of Days in the book of Daniel. But unlike most of the Old Testament and other Jewish books, John does not use an anthropomorphic language. “In the great Christian Apocalypse there is no need for anthropomorphic descriptions of Deity; one like a Son of Man is always at hand to whom they are naturally transferred.”[21] John uses the imagery of precious stones to describe the one who is sitting on the throne. The use of precious stones in John’s description, as in Ezekiel’s 1:27, evokes the dazzling splendour of the divine presence, a scene before which human beings can only bow down in adoration and worship. [22] According to Exod. 28:17 ff., the jasper (σάρδιον) and the emerald stand in the first row of stones in the High Priest’s breastplate and the carnelian (ἴασπις) in the second.[23] John here reverses the order as he does with other Exodus materials elsewhere in the book. “Since jasper is used as a simile for the appearance of God, it is used later in Revelation as an image for the overall appearance of the New Jerusalem, which manifests the glory of God (21:11), and is the material from which its walls are constructed (21:18), as well as the first of its twelve foundations (21:19).”[24]

For an earnest reader the rainbow can be a reminder of God’s faithfulness and promise to Noah after the great flood in Genesis 9:13. If this could well explain the imagery of the rainbow, it would serve to undermine widespread eschatological readings of Revelation which claim that God’s purposes include the radical destruction of God’s creation.[25] The throne scene suggests such an idea. God is praised and worshipped for his creation. Rousas John Rushdoony writes that “the whole universe is seen in a blaze of light going forth from the Throne. But God himself remains hidden in that light. The knowledge of God remains eternally inexhaustible to man, even in heaven, so that His very revelation underscores His inexhaustibility and incomprehensibility.” Therefore the imageries which serve the purpose of describing the attributes of God would echo St. Paul as he tells us 1 Tim. 6:16 that God “… dwells in unapproachable light, whom no man has seen or can see.”[26]

3.3. Twenty-Four Elders around the Throne

Scholars differ on the identification of twenty-four elders. Some argue that these are angelic figures. They argue that there are no other human beings in chapter 4. They also sight a few Biblical passages where angels might be called elders (Is. 24:23). In Ps. 89:7 (cf. 1 Kings 22:19; Job 15:8) God sits in the “council of his holy ones” (= angels). And angels wear white in Matt. 28:3; John 20:12; Acts 1:10. However, many others believe they are human figures. They state that angels are not called elders, nor do they wear crowns or sit on thrones in the Bible. In 3:21, Jesus offers a place with him on his throne to those who conquer the evil. Moreover, white clothing in Revelation is always worn by the saints (3:4–5, 18; 6:11; 7:9, 13; 19:14). The “twenty-four elders” could represent the whole people of God including the twelve patriarchs (Old Testament) and twelve apostles (Old Testament) , (see 21:12–14, with the names of the twelve tribes and the twelve apostles on the gates and foundations of the New Jerusalem); or the whole community built on the twenty-four orders of the priesthood in 1 Chron. 24:4–5; or the church as the true Israel, the heavenly counterpart of all “victors” (στέφανος as the victor’s wreath rather than the ruler’s crown) who remain true to God.[27] Once, they have won over the enemy in earth, they are given place in heaven with a function under God similar to the way first-century kings who were subject to the Roman emperor.[28] In Revelation, the elders have royal status as well as a cultic role (4:9-10, 5:8-11, 11:16-18, 19:4). In this respect, they fittingly represent “the people of God,” as the royal house of priests (1 :6).[29]

3.4. Celestial phenomena from the throne

“Throughout the Bible, the divine supremacy and the power of God has been demonstrated by comparisons with lightening, thunder, other powerful natural disasters (Matthew 28:2).”[30] This is similar to Exod. 19:16-19, which describes physical phenomena that surround the presence of God on Mt. Sinai.[31] “This scene is a reference to the so called ‘cosmic earthquake’, which accompanies the ‘eschatological theophany’ (Exod. 19:16; cf. Ezek. 1:13; LAB 11:4; 1Enoch 1:3-9; 102:1-2; Testament of Moses 10:1-7; 2 Baruch 32:1).”[32] It is thus closely associated with the judgment scenes in the following chapters. This is reminder of the royal power of God. The thunderbolt was closely associated with the Greek god Zeus, as it was with his Roman counterpart Jupiter, and was consequently used as a symbol suggesting the divinity of several Roman emperors including Domitian and Trajan. [33]Keeping these phenomena as proceeding from the throne, John puts God as the sovereign authority of the universe. Universe moves in front of him and has power from him.

Before the throne, there are seven lamps which are seven spirits of God. However, it is debated whether or not the seven spirits are the Holy Spirit or angels. Although there are different opinions, I think, it would be better explaining the mystery of Holy Spirit, who is the light that radiates from the presence of God. Moreover, fire is a well-known manifestation of Holy Spirit, even in the Book of the Acts. The seven lamps or seven spirits symbolize the completeness of the Holy Spirit.[34]

3.5. Four living beings

The eyes symbolize wisdom and all-seeing vigilance. The Living Creatures appear similar to the seraphim (Isa. 6:2) and even more like the cherubim (Ezek. 1:4-14; 9:3; 10). They appear to have a judicial function (cf. 6:1, 3, 5, 7) and to have some connection with animate creation (cf. vv. 9-11; 15:7).[35] Over the centuries the four Evangelists were identified with the four living creatures of Rev 4:6–7: lion (John), ox (Luke), human face (Matthew), flying eagle (Mark). But this could be a far-fetched reading. The lion could represent strength (Psalms 103:20), the calf service (Hebrews 1:14), the face of a man intelligence (Luke 2:52), and the eagle swiftness (Daniel 9:21). Some do think that the living creatures represent zodiac signs and four directions. And yet others argue that the animals represent the creation of God ceaselessly praising. The eagle would represent the animals of the sky, the cow represents the domestic animals, the lion represents the wild animals, and that with a face like man represents humanity.[36] When we consider the fact that Revelation considers the sovereignty of God in the universe, it is apt that the whole of creation joins in praising and thanking God in heaven. Their wings and many eyes evidently symbolize their penetrating intelligence which sees everything and misses nothing that affects their judicial responsibility (cf. Ezek. 1:18; 10:12).

3.6. Worship of the Celestial Beings

“What they “never cease saying” is the first of the many hymns of worship in the book. The hymns are strategically placed throughout to draw attention to two things: the majesty and sovereignty of God, and the worship of his people, heavenly as well as earthly.”[37] The song of the four living creatures has strong allusions to Isaiah 6. The threefold repetition (the Qĕduššah in Hebrew and the trisagion in Greek) functions to emphasize the transcendence of God. This may have been part of a hymn regularly chanted a cultic liturgical formula.[38]The focus of their worship is on God’s holiness, His omnipotence, and His eternality. The almighty is really the Lord and God of the universe and all that exists. Everything has existence in him because he “is, was and is to come.”

In v.10, the scene shifts from the four Living creatures to the twenty-four elders. These rulers humbly representing redeemed humanity acknowledge His sovereignty and His right to receive worship. They cast their crowns[39] like a victorious athlete who offer the wreath or crown (στέφανος) he has won from the games to the deity. The Apostle Paul wanted to make sure he did nothing that would result in his losing his reward (1 Cor.9:27). He also used rewards as a motivation to urge Christians to serve Jesus Christ faithfully (1 Cor. 3:10-15; 2 Cor. 5:10; et al.), as Jesus did (Matt. 6:19-21).[40]

They acknowledge that God has the sovereign authority to rule and to judge all things because He is both holy and the creator of all things. After casting their thrones they sing a song which begins “you are worthy.” This is probably because they realize that all human being are equal and therefore, one cannot judge the other or one cannot be praised by the other.[41] It is a clear anti-thesis against Domitian, who had demanded the title Lord and God for himself. Thus he had demanded to be adored. This was something that John and Christians could not savour. The twenty four elders adore God for three reasons: (1) he is the creator of all things, (2) he is the preserver of all things and (3) he is the final cause of all things.[42] Unlike the earthly emperors, God is the life himself.

4. Conclusion

The vision of the heavenly throne reveals the qualities of God as perfectly holy, just, gracious, righteous, pure, omnipotent, eternal, and sovereign. He has opened the door for the faithful, and it will remain open to all the faithful. He is sitting on the throne and thereby making his sovereignty known to all. The whole cosmos is in front of him. Everything that happens here on earth and in the cosmos originates in the heavenly court. His knowledge surpasses all other knowledge. He is in control of everything, including Satan and his forces. Thus the throne scene is a reminder to the faithful that our God is a sovereign God who created all things. And by his will everything existed and was created. It means even before creation, everything existed in the mind of God. Only he is to be worshipped who is worthy to receive glory and honour.

The political and economic connotation of the throne scene is also very important. It reminds us that God is the Supreme authority and not anyone else. He cares for the whole of cosmos, unlike earthly rulers. He creates and preserves all things. But the earthly powers and rulers try to destroy them for their existence. God does need not to do that, because he is the existence.

In a society like that of ours, we must take inspiration from this throne scene. We must be able to recognize the power of God in the whole of creation. Although there might seem to be times when God is away, He is not really away from us. He is in control of everything. Being Christians, therefore, is a call to understand the presence of God in creation and doing our bit to preserve it. We may have to fight against the forces that work against life and cosmos. It may anything: bad governance, globalization, medical practices, religious mal-practices and fundamentalism, etc. It may be the events of our everyday life. It may be the ecological disharmonies we create. Whatever it is, only those who can accept God as the Lord and God of this universe and creation can enter in heaven and can be called in true sense Christian. This remains a challenge for us even today. Let us, then, try to praise and worship the God of creation, because he is worthy and the Lord God of everything.

Bibliography

Aune, David E. Word Biblical Commentary : Revelation 1-5:14. 52 vols. Word Biblical Commentary vol.52A. Texas: Word Books, 2002.

Bass, Ralph E. Back to the Future: A Study in the Book of Revelation. Greenville, SC: Living Hope Press, 2004.

Beasley-Murray, George Raymond. The Book of Revelation. New Century Bible Commentary series. London: Morgan & Scott, 1974. Repr., Grand Rapids: Wm: B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, 1983.

Boxall, Ian. Black’s New Testament Commentary: The Revelation of Saint John. Edited by Morna D. Hooker. Black’s New Testament Commentary. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2006.

Cockerham, Larry W. “Outline of the Book of Revelation.” No pages. Cited 5/10/12. Online: http://www.prophecyforum.com/outline.html.

Constable, Thomas L. “Notes on Revelation.” No pages. Cited 29/7/2012. Online: http://www.soniclight.com/constable/notes/pdf/revelation.pdf.

D’Aragon, Jean-Louis. The Jerome Biblical Commentary. Edited by R. E. Brown et al. 1968. Repr., Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall, 1996.

Fiorenza, E. S. Revelation: Vision of a Just World. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1991.

Henry, Matthew. Matthew Henry’s Commentary on the Whole Bible : Complete and Unabridged in One Volume. c1991. Repr., Peabody: Hendrickson, 1996.

Kistemaker, Simon J. New Testament Commentary: Exposition of the Book of Revelation. New Testament Commentary 20. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 2001.

Lee, Pilcahan. “The New Jersualem in the Book of Revelation : A Study of Revelation 21-22 in the Light of its Background in Jewish Tradition.” Ph.D. diss., University of St. Andrews; Scotland, 1999.

Osborne, Grant R. Revelation. Baker exegetical commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Academic, 2002.

Pilcahan Lee. “The New Jersualem in the Book of Revelation : A Study of Revelation 21-22 in the Light of its Background in Jewish Tradition.” Ph.D. diss., University of St. Andrews, 1999. Cited 5/10/12. Online: http://research-repository.st-andrews.ac.uk/handle/10023/2952.

Swete, Henry Barclay, ed. The Apocalypse of St. John. 2nd Ed. Classic Commentaries on the Greek New Testament. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1907.

TOW. “Revelation and Work.” No pages. Cited 8/10/12. Online: http://wiki.theologyofwork.org/New_Testament_Articles/690_Revelation_and_Work.

Utley,Bob. Revelation., 1996. Cited 30/9/12. http://bible.org/assets/pdf/Revelation.pdf.

WIKIBOOKS. “John’s Vision of the Throne of God.” No pages. Cited 6/10/12. Online: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Biblical_Studies/New_Testament_Commentaries/Revelation/Chapter_4.


[1]TOW, “Revelation and Work,” n.p. [cited 8/10/12]. Online: http://wiki.theologyofwork.org/New_Testament_Articles/690_Revelation_and_Work.

[2]Pilcahan Lee, “The New Jersualem in the Book of Revelation: A Study of Revelation 21-22 in the Light of its Background in Jewish Tradition” (Ph.D. diss., University of St. Andrews, 1999), 214. Cited 5/10/12. Online: http://research-repository.st-andrews.ac.uk/handle/10023/2952.

[3] George Raymond Beasley-Murray, The Book of Revelation(New Century Bible Commentary series; London: Morgan & Scott, 1974; repr., Grand Rapids: Wm: B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, 1983), 311.

[4]Jean-Louis D’Aragon, The Jerome Biblical Commentary(ed. R. E. Brown et al; 1968; repr., Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall, 1996), 470.

[5]Larry W. Cockerham, “Outline of the Book of Revelation,” n.p. [cited 5/10/12]. Online: http://www.prophecyforum.com/outline.html.

[6]WIKIBOOKS, “John’s Vision of the Throne of God,” n.p. [cited 6/10/12]. Online: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Biblical_Studies/New_Testament_Commentaries/Revelation/Chapter_4.

[7] Beasley-Murray, The Book of Revelation, 108.

[8] E. S Fiorenza, Revelation: Vision of a Just World(Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1991.), 58.

[9] Grant R. Osborne, Revelation(Baker exegetical commentary on the New Testament; Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Academic, 2002), 222.

[10] Osborne, Revelation, 222.

[11]Thomas L. Constable, “Notes on Revelation,” n.p. [cited 29/7/2012]. Online: http://www.soniclight.com/constable/notes/pdf/revelation.pdf.

[12]WIKIBOOKS, “John’s Vision of the Throne of God,” n.p.

[13]Constable, “Notes on Revelation,” n.p.

[14] Bob Utley, Revelation(,1996), 55. Cited 30/9/12. Online: http://bible.org/assets/pdf/Revelation.pdf.

[15] Utley, Revelation, 55.

[16] Simon J. Kistemaker, New Testament Commentary: Exposition of the Book of Revelation(New Testament Commentary 20; Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 2001), 184.

[17]Constable, “Notes on Revelation,” n.p.

[18]Ian Boxall, Black’s New Testament Commentary: The Revelation of Saint John(ed. Morna D. Hooker; BNTC; Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2006), 83.

[19]WIKIBOOKS, “John’s Vision of the Throne of God,” n.p.

[20] D’Aragon, JBC, 475.

[21]Henry Barclay Swete, ed., The Apocalypse of St. John(2nd Ed.; CCGNT; New York: The Macmillan Company, 1907), 66.

[22]Boxall, Black’s New Testament Commentary, 84.

[23]Swete, The Apocalypse, 66.

[24]David E. Aune, Word Biblical Commentary: WBC(52 vols.; WBC vol.52A; Texas: Word Books, 2002), 52A:285.

[25]Boxall, Black’s New Testament Commentary, 84.

[26] Ralph E. Bass, Back to the Future: A Study in the Book of Revelation(Greenville, SC: Living Hope Press, 2004), 153.

[27]Osborne, Revelation, 228.

[28]Osborne, Revelation, 229.

[29]Pilcahan Lee, “The New Jersualem in the Book of Revelation,” 233.

[30]WIKIBOOKS, “John’s Vision of the Throne of God,” n.p.

[31] Utley, Revelation, 56.

[32]Pilcahan Lee, “The New Jersualem in the Book of Revelation,” 233.

[33]Aune, WBC, 52A:295.

[34]WIKIBOOKS, “John’s Vision of the Throne of God,” n.p.

[35]Constable, “Notes on Revelation,” n.p.

[36]WIKIBOOKS, “John’s Vision of the Throne of God,” n.p.

[37]Osborne, Revelation, 236.

[38] Aune, WBC, 52A:368-369

[39]The Bible seems to distinguish between the word στέφανος, which is used of a crown of reward for faithful endurance, and διάδημα, which is the crown of royalty or authority. Here interestingly, the word is στέφανος.

[40]Constable, “Notes on Revelation,” n.p.

[41]WIKIBOOKS, “John’s Vision of the Throne of God,” n.p.

[42]Matthew Henry, Matthew Henry’s Commentary on the Whole Bible : Complete and Unabridged in One Volume (c1991; repr., Peabody: Hendrickson, 1996), Re 4:8

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